The song (in English) starts at the the 2:20 mark of this French broadcast. (Click the blue button to play and use the purple slider at the bottom to move to the right location.)
I've emailed the program's host, who asked her producer, but he no longer remembers.
I also searched the web for "undoubtedly attain the highest degree" and "so darling home sweet home" but came up empty.
The song is in the Calypso style (an early Jamaican precursor to reggae, made famous worldwide by Harry Belafonte). It sounds to be from the 50s or 60s, and might also be an early roots reggae song.
The "land of La Trinity" at the end suggests that the song is from Trinidad and Tobago, home of the calypso.
Home, sweet home
My home, sweet home
No matter what part of the world I roam
I'll always remember my [irie?] home
A land where riches alone don't count
Who has the ability the ladder will mount
And undoubtedly attain the highest degree
In this fair land of La Trinity, so darling...
Update Many thanks to Chris Sunami for adding information about the calypso and much of the lyrics.