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I found some basic info about a piece titled "Polorum Regina," which is part of a larger collection known as Llibre Vermell de Montserrat. The pieces have a devotional feel / spirit as is reflected by the titles and lyrics. Most of which are easy to understand; titles like: "O Splendid Virgin" or "Praise Mary" have rather obvious biblical contexts.

"Queen of the Poles," (English translation of Polorum Regina) on the other hand, isn't a devotional term I've heard before. In my research, I saw that there is also a folk element to the pieces; perhaps Queen of the Poles does not have a biblical reference but rather something folk-related. Either way, I could only come up with two interpretations -- neither of which seem that convincing.

  • A reference to the Queen of Poland, but I don't think that fits as there wasn't during that time. Plus the region these songs come from is the Mediterranean.
  • Another honorific applied to the Virgin Mary: "Queen of the Poles" as in ruler of all between North Pole and South Pole, effectively a fancy way to say 'of all creation.' However, search engine queries using this term didn't return very many matches. So I'm skeptical.

Question

What is the appropriate way to interpret "Queen of the Poles" as it relates to that musical score / sources of Late Medieval musical inspiration?

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'Polorum' is the genitive plural of 'polus'. According to several dictionaries 'polus' can mean either a pole or heaven, sky, celestial vault. The second meaning is is probably closer to the intentions of the writer.

The beginning of the text is:

Polorum regina omnium nostra
Stella matutina dele scelera

Translated here as :

Our queen encompassing all of heaven,
morning star, take away our sins.

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