I was wondering if there a is guide so you can link a specific sound to a synth. Or some kind of database that catalogs the synths used in popular songs.
I was wondering if there a is guide so you can link a specific sound to a synth
One specific synth sound can be carved with several different synths and through many different synthesis types and techniques, so I don't think it is feasible to build a guide like the one you describe.
There are guides on how to achieve specific sounds through specific synths and techniques, but I don't think it's possible to do a reverse search. It'd be like a reverse search of a guitar sound that gave you the guitar model, strings, and processes used. It can't be done using the sound alone, you need to check if the instrument used was documented somewhere, which leads us to the next point.
Or some kind of database that catalogs the synths used in popular songs.
To my knowledge there's no unified catalog, but it's very common to include the instruments used in the song's credits, so you can check the booklet or the Wikipedia page or similar documents to find that information.
For example, if you go to the Wikipedia page of Herbie Hancock's Head Hunters you'll see in the credits section:
Herbie Hancock: Fender Rhodes electric piano, Hohner D6 clavinet, ARP Odyssey synthesizer, ARP Soloist synthesizer
If that's not the case, but the song is very popular, it's possible that you can find the synths used through some googling, in an interview, master class, documentary, whatever.