If you're asking about the difference between "180gr vinyl and a [regular weight] coloured vinyl", then 180g usually has better sound quality when compared with the regular 120-140g vinyls.
If you're comparing black and coloured vinyls, there is a small noticeable difference in sound quality.
Let's look at the production of coloured vinyl
[in order to ...
You are talking about "transcodes".
The easiest way to determine the quality of the track is by looking at spectrograms. The higher the quality of the sound, the higher will the spectrogram "peak". When analysing MP3s, you will get 16kHz for 128 CBR and around 19-20kHz for V0 (VBR) and 320 CBR.
Here's how a spectrogram looks like:
Bear in mind however ...
The german "Intro"-magazine states, that transparent vinyl is theoretical the one with the best sound, but in reality the black one is, because the pressing machines are always held on working temperature.
It also says, that most records are only black, because shellac records were.
Any components of the materials used in making a phonograph disk could make a difference. The material used for coloring is just one of them.
Understanding this would require detailed information regarding the production process.
However, as mentioned in Unusual types of gramophone records coloring as a factor in audio quality was likely not a parameter in ...
Safe answer might be "can't determine'.
Except a few special lossless codecs, all digital audio codecs use perceptual coding which is basically deleting non-human-hearable sound samples from the original.
As mentioned by MMM, if the file has been encoded with any lossy codec it may show smoothed spectrogram (can't be the case always) but we can't determine ...